Understanding Malnutrition


What is Malnutrition?

Malnutrition or Malnourishment is a condition that results from eating a diet in which nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.  It may involve calories, protein, carbohydrates, vitamins or minerals. Not enough nutrients is called Under nutrition or Undernourishment while too much is called overnutrition.  Several different nutrition disorders may develop, depending on which nutrients are lacking or consumed in excess.
According to the WorldHealth Organization (WHO), malnutrition is the gravest single threat to global public health.
Obese people, who consume more calories than they need, may suffer from the subnutrition aspect of malnutrition if their diet lacks the nutrients their body needs for good health.
Poor diet may lead to a vitamin or mineral deficiency, among other essential substances, sometimes resulting in scurvy - a condition where an individual has a vitamin C (ascorbic acid) deficiency.
According to theNational Health Service (NHS), UK, it is estimated that around three million people in the UK are affected by malnutrition (sub nutrition).
According to the Foodand Agriculture Organization (FAO), the number of people globally who were malnourished stood at 923 million in 2007, an increase of over 80 million since the 1990-92 base period. Malnutrition at an early age leads to reduced physical and mental development during childhood. Stunting, for example, affects more than 147 million preschoolers in developing countries, according to SCN's World Nutrition Situation 5th report.
Globally, as well as in developed, industrialized countries, the following groups of people are at highest risk of malnutrition (sub nutrition):
        Elderly people, especially those who are hospitalized or in long-term institutional care
        Individuals who are socially isolated
        People on low incomes (poor people)
        People with chronic eating disorders, such as bulimia or anorexia nervous
        People convalescing after a serious illness or condition.
What are the consequences of malnutrition?
According to World Health Organization, Malnutrition affects people in every country. Around 1.9 billion adults worldwide are overweight, while 462 million are underweight. An estimated 41 million children under the age of 5 years are overweight or obese, while some 159 million are stunted and 50 million are wasted. Adding to this burden are the 528 million or 29% of women of reproductive age around the world affected by anaemia, for which approximately half would be amenable to iron supplementation.
       Many families cannot afford or access enough nutritious foods like fresh fruit and vegetables, legumes, meat and milk, while foods and drinks high in fat, sugar and salt are cheaper and more readily available, leading to a rapid rise in the number of children and adults who are overweight and obese, in poor as well as rich countries. It is quite common to find undernutrition and overweight within the same community, household or even individual – it is possible to be both overweight and micronutrient deficient.

In Children

Malnutrition in children is common globally and results in both short and long term irreversible negative health outcomes. Which includes?
1.       Stunting referring to a child who is too short for his or her age. Stunting is the failure to grow both physically and cognitively and is the result of chronic or recurrent malnutrition. The devastating effects of stunting can last a lifetime.
2.        Overweight referring to a child who is too heavy for his or her height. This form of malnutrition results from expending too few calories for the amount of food consumed and increases the risk of no communicable diseases later in life.
3.       Wasting referring to a child who is too thin for his or her height. Wasting, or acute malnutrition, is the result of recent rapid weight loss or the failure to gain weight. A child who is moderately or severely wasted has an increased risk of death, but treatment is possible.
4.       Some Children suffer from more than one malnutrition - Overweight and stunted or Stunted and wasted

  Forms of Malnutrition

Each form of malnutrition depends on what nutrients are missing in the diet, for how long and at what age.
The most basic kind is called protein energy malnutrition . It results from a diet lacking in energy and protein because of a deficit in all major macro nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
Marasmus is caused by a lack of protein and energy with sufferers appearing skeletally thin. In extreme cases, it can lead to kwashiorkor, in which malnutrition causes swelling including a so-called 'moon face'.
Other forms of malnutrition are less visible - but no less deadly. They are usually the result of vitamin and mineral deficiencies (micro nutrients), which can lead to anaemia, scurvy, pellagra, beriberi and xeropthalmia and, ultimately, death.
Deficiencies of iron, vitamin A and zinc are ranked among the World Health Organization's (WHO) top 10 leading causes of death through disease in developing countries

Treatment for Malnutrition

 NICE (NationalInstitute for Health and Clinical Excellence), UK, has guidelines for malnutrition treatment
NICE guidelines say that individuals who are receiving nutritional support, as well as their caregivers (UK: carers):
        Should be fully informed about their treatment
        Should be given tailored information
        Should be given the opportunity to discuss diagnosis, treatment options and relevant physical, psychological and social issues.
        Should be given contact details of relevant support groups, charities and voluntary organizations.
When a diagnosis of either malnutrition or malnutrition risk has been made, the healthcare professional (either a doctor or dietician) who is responsible for the patient will devise a targeted care plan.
The care plan
Aims for treatment will be set out, which should include the treatment for any underlying conditions/illnesses which are contributory factors to the malnutrition.
Typically, treatment will include a feeding program with a specially planned diet, and possibly some additional nutritional supplements.
Severely malnourished patients, or individuals who cannot get sufficient nutrition by eating or drinking may need and should receive artificial nutritional support.


A good healthcare professional will discuss eating and drinking with the patient and provide advice regarding healthy food choices. The aim is to make sure the patient is receiving a healthy, nutritious diet.
Preventing malnutrition
Malnutrition is caused mainly by not consuming what the National Health Service (NHS), UK, calls "the right balance of nutrients from major food groups". These include:
        Fruit and vegetables
        Dairy - vegans are able to find abundant nutrients from non-animal sources
The average human should drink at least 1.2 liters of fluid per day.

Benefits of Fruits And Vegetables

Benefits of Fruits and vegetables

      Vegetables and fruits are an important part of a healthy diet, and variety is as important as quantity.  No single fruit or vegetable provides all of the nutrients you need to be healthy. Eat plenty everyday.
        A diet rich in vegetables and fruits can lower blood pressure, reduce risk of heart disease and stroke, prevent some types of cancer, lower risk of eye and digestive problems, and have a positive effect upon blood sugar which can help keep appetite in check. Eat a variety of types and colors of produce in order to give your body the mix of nutrients it needs. Try dark leafy greens; brightly colored red, yellow and orange vegetables and fruits; and cooked tomatoes. Fresh, filling and heart-healthy, fruits and vegetables are an important part of your overall healthy eating plan.
They are high in vitamins, minerals and fiber and low in fat and calories. Eating a variety of fruits and vegetables may help you control your weight and your blood pressure.
The American Heart Association recommends eating eight or more fruit and vegetable servings every day. An average adult consuming 2,000 calories daily should aim for 4.5 cups of fruits and vegetables a day. Also, variety matters, so try a wide range of fruits and veggies.

Cardiovascular Diseases

Harvard studies reviewed that  there is compelling evidence that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables can lower the risk of heart disease and stroke. The higher the average daily intake of fruits and vegetables, the lower the chances of developing cardiovascular disease. Compared with those in the lowest category of fruit and vegetable intake (less than 1.5 servings a day), those who averaged 8 or more servings a day were 30 percent less likely to have had a heart attack or stroke. When researchers combined findings from the Harvard studies with several other long-term studies in the U.S. and Europe, and looked at coronary heart disease and stroke separately, they found a similar protective effect: Individuals who ate more than 5 servings of fruits and vegetables per had roughly a 20 percent lower risk of coronary heart disease and stroke,  compared with individuals who ate less than 3 servings per day.

Blood pressure 

      The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) study examined the effect on blood pressure of a diet that was rich in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products and that restricted the amount of saturated and total fat. The researchers found that people with high blood pressure who followed this diet reduced their systolic blood pressure (the upper number of a blood pressure reading) by about 11 mm Hg and their diastolic blood pressure (the lower number) by almost 6 mm Hg—as much as medications can achieve.


   Eating fruits and vegetables can also keep your eyes healthy, and may help prevent two common aging-related eye diseases—cataracts and macular degeneration—which afflict millions of Americans over age

Gastrointestinal health

    Fruits and vegetables contain indigestible fiber, which absorbs water and expands as it passes through the digestive system. This can calm symptoms of an irritable bowel and, by triggering regular bowel movements, can relieve or prevent constipation. The bulking and softening action of insoluble fiber also decreases pressure inside the intestinal tract and may help prevent diverticulosis.

Properties and Benefits of fruits & vegetables

Apples -Studies show eating apples may help to prevent certain types of cancers. Quercetin, an antioxidant abundant in apples, helps reduce LDL/bad cholesterol oxidation. Apples are rich in a soluble fiber called pectin. Preliminary studies suggest that pectin suggest that pectin may help to reduce levels of toxic metals in the body.

Asparagus- Asparagus is a good source of folate which is vitally important for fetal development. It has been shown to potentially prevent cognitive decline, bestowing it with anti-aging properties! Asparagus is packed with antioxidants, which neutralize cell-damaging free radicals – another reason why it’s a great anti-aging food. A very good source of fiber, vitamins A, C, E and K, asparagus also contains as chromium, a trace mineral that assists insulin to transport glucose from the bloodstream into cells. Asparagus contains high amounts of asparagine, which assists the body in getting rid of excess fluids, salts, which is especially helpful for people with edema, high blood pressure, and other heart-related diseases.

Avocado- Rich in flavor and consistency, avocados are great to consume if you’re craving something fatty and thick. High in potassium, they help to keep blood pressure low. They also contain monounsaturated fats which help to lower blood pressure. Good source of vitamin K, which has been indicated to promote bone health in the elderly, and folate. Avocados are a nice source of protein, especially for anyone on a plant-based diet.

Bananas- Bananas are a good source of B vitamins, which may help to remedy sleeplessness, mood swings, and irritability. They also contain vitamin C, as well as magnesium and potassium, which make them a great electrolyte replenisher, particularly after exercising or on a hot day. They’re fairly high in natural sugars, so rather than reaching for processed sweet junk foods.

Blackberries-An excellent source of vitamin C, blackberries have substantial amounts of fiber, iron, calcium, manganese, and potassium. Diets rich in potassium may help to maintain a healthy blood pressure. Berries are the highest source of antioxidants from fruits.

Blue berries- Blueberries contain pectin, vitamin C, potassium, and significant amounts of tannins which can kill bacteria. Manganese, which contributes to healthy bones as well as in converting macronutrients to energy, is amply found in blueberries. Rich in flavonoids, consuming these little berries is associated with a decreased risk of type-2 diabetes. Loaded with antioxidants.

Cabbage- High in sulfur, which purifies the blood, and one of very few vegetables that contains vitamin E. Antibacterial, antioxidant, and an anti-inflammatory.

Carrots- Carrots are the ABCs of health and one of the most readily available veggies. They’re an excellent source of vitamins A, B, and C. Rich in beta-carotene and carotenoids. they help protect the body from cancer, cardiac disease, and cataract and macular degeneration. They also contain iron, calcium, potassium, and natural sodium. Their delicate sweetness lends them to mixing well in both fruit and vegetable juices, and even people new to vegetable juices tend to love a carrot juice.

Cherries- Contains iron and helps to build blood. Cherries possess an anti-cancer compound, called Ellagic acid, and are high in vitamins A and C. They also contain biotin and potassium.

Cucumbers- Cucumbers contain potassium and phytosterols which can help lower cholesterol. They’re high in water, which make them great for juicing. Cucumbers are especially cooling, whether consumed in juice form or placed on the skin. Consume the dark green skin to get a boost of chlorophyll.

Eggplant- Low in calories and sodium, eggplants has a phytochemical called monoterpene that may help prevent cancer cell growth.

Grapefruits- High in vitamin C and limonene, which may help protect against breast cancer. Grapefruits have soluble fiber which can help to lower cholesterol.

Grapes - Grapes are endowed with vitamins A, B, C and folate, and contain many important minerals like potassium, calcium, iron, phosphorus, magnesium and selenium. The flavonoids found in grapes have antioxidant properties that can lessen the damage caused by free radicals, making them a great anti-aging fruit.

Lemons - High in vitamin C and anti-inflammatory. Lemons and limes contain limonene which may help to prevent breast cancer growth. Also contains natural anti-nausea and overall digestive-aid properties.

Limes - Contains vitamin C, vitamin B6, folic acid, potassium, flavonoids and many other phytonutrients.

Mangoes - Excellent source of vitamin A and C, which is very beneficial to maintaining a strong immune system. Has been found to protect against colon, breast, leukemia and prostate cancers and is a good source of potassium, which is important in assisting to control heart rate and blood pressure.

Melons - Antioxidant and anti-cancer. Reduces the risk of cancer and stroke.

Onions- Onions contain a naturally occurring chemical which has been found to promote bone health and reduce the risk of osteoporosis. An antioxidant that lessens free radical damage. Red onions can also help to lower blood sugar levels, due to their trace amounts of quercetin.

Oranges- Excellent source of vitamin C. Vitamin C helps heal cuts and wounds and keep teeth and gums healthy.

Pineapples- Great for improving digestion. A good source of potassium and has vitamin C and iron.

Raspberries- Very high in antioxidants and a super immune booster. Contains potassium, niacin, and some iron and vitamin C.

Sweet Potatoes- Excellent source of vitamin C and vitamin A. Keeps eyes and skin healthy and helps to protect against infections, and good source of potassium.

Tomatoes - Excellent source of vitamin C, as well as antioxidants that may prevent cancer, such as Lycopene. Lycopene promotes overall mental and physical health. Good source of potassium

Know more about Nutrition

What to know about Nutrition
According to the WHO, Nutrition is the intake of food, considered in relation to the body’s dietary needs. Good nutrition – an adequate, well balanced diet combined with regular physical activity – is a cornerstone of good health. Poor nutrition can lead to reduced immunity, increased susceptibility to disease, impaired physical and mental development, and reduced productivity. 
In hospitals, nutrition may refer to the food requirements of patients, including nutritional solutions delivered via an IV (intravenous) or IG (intragastric) tube.
Nutritional science studies how the body breaks food down (catabolism) and repairs and creates cells and tissue (anabolism) - catabolism and anabolism metabolism. Nutritional science also examines how the body responds to food.
Brigham Young University states that "nutritional Science investigates the metabolic and physiological responses of the body to food and diet, including the role of nutrients in the cause, treatment, and prevention of disease."

Nutrition is present in all processes of life. Right from the very moment the sperm fertilizes an egg, through fetal development in the uterus, to the birth, human growth, maturity, old age, and eventual death. Even after death the human body serves as nutrition for other organisms. Anything that involves life and chemical or biochemical movement has nutrition at its core.
Anything that lives is dependent on energy, which results from the combustion of food.

Types of Nutrients

As of 2014, nutrients are thought to be of two types: macro-nutrients which are needed in relatively large amounts, and micronutrients which are needed in smaller quantities. The macronutrients include Carbohydrates, fibers and Micronuritents such as Antioxidants and phytochemicals which are said to influence and protect our body system. Most foods contain a mix of some or all of the nutrient types, together with other substances, such as toxins of various sorts. Some nutrients can be stored internally (e.g., the fat-soluble vitamins), while others are required more or less continuously. Poor health can be caused by a lack of required nutrients or, in extreme cases, too much of a required nutrient. For example, both salt and water (both absolutely required) will cause illness or even death in excessive amounts.
This macronutrients which includes Carbohydrate(provides energy), the Protein(amino acids that provide structural material), Dietary Fiber (reduces constipation and gastrointestinal problems), Lipids(cell membranes and some other molecules are built). The Energy been provided is measured either in kilocalories (kcal) or Joules. 1 kcal = 4185.8 joules.


Carbohydrates are polyhydroxyl alcohols having potentially active aldehydes and ketones. They are made up of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen atoms bonded together. They include Monosaccharide; disaccharides can be referred to Simple Carbohydrate.  Oligosaccharides and Polysaccharides which can be referred to as complex carbohydrate. They constitute a large part of Rice, Yam, Noodles and bread. Some simple carbohydrates follow metabolic that result in the  catabolism to glucose, while Nutritionally, polysaccharides are more favored for humans because they are more complex molecular sugar chains and take longer to break down - the more complex a sugar molecule is the longer it takes to break down and absorb into the bloodstream, and the less it spikes blood sugar levels. Spikes in blood sugar levels are linked to heart and vascular diseases.


Proteins are complex biological substances necessary to build protoplasm. They are largely peptides and consist of units called amino acids. All proteins contains carbon hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Some contain Sulphur, phosphorus, iron iodine and other elements. They are usually from plants or animal origin. Every function in the living cell depends on proteins. Excess amino acids are discarded, typically in the urine. For all animals, some amino acids are essential (an animal cannot produce them internally) and some are non-essential (the animal can produce them from other nitrogen-containing compounds). Excess amino acids from protein can be converted into glucose and used for fuel through a process called Gluconeogenesis.


Dietary fiber is the part of a plant that is resistant to the body’s digestive enzymes. Only a relatively small amount of fiber is digested or metabolized in the stomach or intestines. Most of it ends up in the stool. Although most fiber is not digested, it delievers several important health benefits, it retains water resulting in softer and bulkier stool that prevents constipation and hemorrhoids. A high fiber diet also reduces the risk of colon cancer, perhaps by speeding the rate which stool passes through the intestine and by keeping the digestive system clean, in addiction fiber finds substances that would normally result in the production of cholesterol, and eliminates these substances from the body, it helps lower Blood cholesterol levels, reducing the risk of heart disease. It may help lower blood glucose levels because it can slow the absorption of sugar. Additionally, fiber, perhaps especially that from whole grains, is thought to possibly help lessen insulin spikes, and therefore reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. 


Molecules consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. Fats are triglycerides - three molecules of fatty acid combined with a molecule of the alcohol glycerol. Fatty acids are simple compounds (monomers) while triglycerides are complex molecules (polymers). Humans have a requirement for certain essential fatty acids such as Linoleic acid(omega 6 fatty acids) and alpha-linolenic acid (omega 3 fatty acids) in the diet because they cannot be synthesized from simple fatty acid in the diet. Omega 6 can be found in vegetable oils while omega 3 is found in the green leaves of plants and in selected seeds, nuts and legumes and also found in fish oils.


About 70% of the non-fat mass of the human body is water. Nobody is completely sure how much water the human body needs - claims vary from between one to seven liters per day to avoid dehydration. We do know that water requirements are very closely linked to body size, age, environmental temperatures, physical activity, different states of health, and dietary habits.
Somebody who consumes a lot of salt will require more water than another person of the same height, age and weight, exposed to the same levels of outside temperatures, and similar levels of physical exertion who consumes less salt. Most blanket claims that 'the more water you drink the healthier your are' are not backed with scientific evidence. The variables that influence water requirements are so vast that accurate advice on water intake would only be valid after evaluating each person individually.


Dietary minerals are the other chemical elements our bodies need, apart from carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. The term "minerals" is misleading, and would be more relevant if called "ions" or "dietary ions" (it is a pity they are not called so). People whose intake of foods is varied and well thought out - those with a well balanced diet - will in most cases obtain all their minerals from what they eat.
Minerals are often artificially added to some foods to make up for potential dietary shortages and subsequent health problems. The best example of this is iodized salt - iodine is added to prevent iodine deficiency, which even today affects about two billion people and causes mental retardation and thyroid gland problems. Iodine deficiency remains a serious public health problem in over half the planet.
Sodium:  a very common electrolyte; in general not found in dietary supplements, despite being needed in large quantities, because the ion is very common in food: typically as sodium chloride, or common salt. Excessive sodium consumption can leading to high blood pressure and osteoporosis. The American Heart Association (AHA) announced on November 5, 2012 that sodium consumption should be limited to 1,500 milligrams per day, and that includes everybody, even healthy people without high blood pressure, diabetes or cardiovascular diseases.

Potassium: it is a systemic (affects entire body) electrolyte, essential in co-regulating ATP. 
Deficiency - Hypokalemia (can profoundly affect the nervous system and heart). 
Excess - Hyperkalemia (can also profoundly affect the nervous system and heart).

Chloride - It is key for hydrochloric acid production in the stomach. 
Deficiency - hypochleremia (low salt levels, which if severe can be very dangerous for health). 
Excess - hyperchloremia (usually no symptoms, linked to excessive fluid loss).

Calcium- It is important for muscle, heart and digestive health. Builds bone, assists in the synthesis and function of blood cells.

Phosphorus- It is a component of bones and energy processing. 

Magnesium- It processes ATP and required for good bones. 

Zinc- It is required by several enzymes. 

Iron- It is required for proteins and enzymes, especially hemoglobin. 
Deficiency - anemia. 
Excess - iron overload disorder; iron deposits can form in organs, particularly the heart.

Manganese - It is a cofactor in enzyme functions. 
Deficiency - wobbliness, fainting, hearing loss, weak tendons and ligaments. Less commonly, can be cause of diabetes. 
Excess - interferes with the absorption of dietary iron.

Copper - it is a component of many redox (reduction and oxidation) enzymes. 
Deficiency - anemia or Pancytopenia (reduction in the number of red and white blood cells, as well as platelets) and a Neurodegeneration. 
Excess - can interfere with body's formation of blood cellular components; in severe cases convulsions, palsy, and insensibility and eventually death.

Iodine- it is required for the biosynthesis of thyroxine (a form of thyroid hormone). 
Deficiency - developmental delays, among other problems. 
Excess - can affect functioning of thyroid gland.

Selenium- it is a cofactor essential to activity of antioxidant enzymes. 
Deficiency - Keshan disease (myocardial necrosis leading to weakening of the heart), Kashing-Beck disease (atrophy degeneration and necrosis of cartilage tissue). 
Excess - garlic-smelling breath, gastrointestinal disorders, hair loss, sloughing of nails, fatigue, irritability, and neurological damage.

Molybdenum - It has a vital role in uric acid formation and iron utilization, in carbohydrate metabolism, and sulfite detoxification.


 Vitamins are recognized as organic essential nutrients, necessary in the diet for good health. (Vitamin D is the exception: it can be synthesized in the skin, in the presence of UVB radiation.) Certain vitamin-like compounds that are recommended in the diet, such as carnitine, are thought useful for survival and health, but these are not "essential" dietary nutrients because the human body has some capacity to produce them from other compounds. Vitamins are classified as water soluble (they can dissolve in water) or fat soluble (they can dissolve in fat). For humans there are 4 fat-soluble (A, D, E, and K) and 9 water-soluble (8 B vitamins and vitamin C) vitamins, a total of 13.
Water soluble vitamins need to be consumed more regularly because they are eliminated faster and are not readily stored. Urinary output is a good predictor of water soluble vitamin consumption. Several water-soluble vitamins are manufactured by bacteria.

Antibiotic Resistance


Antibiotic Resistance
What is an antibiotic?
 Antibiotics, also known as antimicrobial drugs, are drugs that fight 
infections caused by bacteria in both humans and animals. Antibiotics fight 
these infections either by killing the bacteria or making it difficult for the bacteria to grow and multiply. Antibiotics do not have any effect on viruses.
What is antibiotic resistance?
Antibiotic resistance occurs when an antibiotic has lost its ability to effectively control or kill bacterial growth; in other words, the bacteria are "resistant" and continue to multiply in the presence of therapeutic levels of an antibiotic.

Why should I care about antibiotic resistance?
    Antibiotic resistance has been called one of the world's most pressing public health problems. Antibiotic resistance can cause illnesses that were once easily treatable with antibiotics to become dangerous infections, prolonging suffering for children and adults. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria can spread to family members, schoolmates, and co-workers, and may threaten your community. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are often more difficult to kill and more expensive to treat. In some cases, the antibiotic-resistant infections can lead to serious disability or even death.
Although some people think a person becomes resistant to specific drugs, it is the bacteria, not the person, that become resistant to the drugs.

What is the extent of the problem?

     Antibiotic resistance is rising to dangerously high levels in all parts of the world. New resistance mechanisms are emerging and spreading globally, threatening our ability to treat common infectious diseases. A growing list of infections – such as pneumonia, tuberculosis, blood poisoning and gonorrhoea – are becoming harder, and sometimes impossible, to treat as antibiotics become less effective.
  Where antibiotics can be bought for human or animal use without a prescription, the emergence and spread of resistance is made worse. Similarly, in countries without standard treatment guidelines, antibiotics are often over-prescribed by health workers and veterinarians and over-used by the public.     Without urgent action, we are heading for a post-antibiotic era, in which common infections and minor injuries can once again kill.

How do bacteria become resistant?

Some bacteria are naturally resistant to certain types of antibiotics. However, bacteria may also become resistant in two ways: 1) by a genetic mutation or 2) by acquiring resistance from another bacterium

 The Resistance mechanism 

1.     Impermeable barrier: the bacterial cell membrane develops an impermeable barrier which blocks antibiotics.
2.     Target modification: modification of components of the bacteria which are targeted by the antibiotic, meaning the antibiotic can no longer bind properly to its target in order to destroy the bacteria.
3.     Antibiotic modification: the cell produces substances (usually a protein called an “enzyme”) that inactivate the antibiotic before it can harm the bacteria.
4.     Efflux pump mechanism: the antibiotic is actively pumped out of the bacteria so that it cannot harm the bacteria.
How should I use antibiotics to protect myself and my community from antibiotic resistance?
·         Tell your healthcare professional you are concerned about antibiotic resistance.
·         Ask your healthcare professional if there are steps you can take to feel better and get symptomatic relief without using antibiotics.
·         Take the prescribed antibiotic exactly as your healthcare professional tells you.
·         Discard any leftover medication
·         Ask your healthcare professional about vaccines recommended for you and your family to prevent infections that may require an antibiotic.
·         Never skip doses or stop taking an antibiotic early unless your healthcare professional tells you to do so.
·         Never take an antibiotic for a viral infection like a cold or the flu.
·         Never pressure your healthcare professional to prescribe an antibiotic.
·         Never save antibiotics for the next time you get sick.
·         Never take antibiotics prescribed for someone else.

How can Health professionals prevent and control the spread of antibiotic resistance?

·         Prevent infections by ensuring your hands, instruments, and environment are clean.

·         Only prescribe and dispense antibiotics when they are needed, according to current guidelines.

·         Report antibiotic-resistant infections to surveillance teams.

·         Talk to your patients about how to take antibiotics correctly, antibiotic resistance and the dangers of misuse.

·         Talk to your patients about preventing infections (for example, vaccination, hand washing, safer sex, and covering nose and mouth when sneezing).
  •   Prescribing an antibiotic that targets the bacteria that is most likely causing their patient’s illness when an antibiotic is likely to provide benefit.

The Nigerian Who Rejected Job Offer From Bill Gate


Nigerian Entrepreneur Who Rejected Job Offer From Bill Gate

A 23 year old Nigerian entrepreneur Chris Kwekowe reportedly turn down job offer as a software engineer at Microsoft, owned by the richest man in the world, Bill Gates to begin his own start up in Lagos.

The young entrepreneur, Lagos University graduate proudly revealed this to Bill Gates during a television interview for Africa’s brightest young entrepreneurs in August 2016, according to vanguard.

That he rejected the offer specifically to building a startup called Slatecube- a website that aims to solve Nigeria’s unemployment problem. Back in August, when Chris met the billionaire during a television Interview, he didn’t ask the Microsoft founder for a job or business advice. Instead the Nigerian told Gates how he had turned down a software engineer role at Microsoft.

 “When I told him, Gates was intrigued and he smiled. After the programme, all the directors were like, ‘Dude, you mean you actually turned down a job at Microsoft and had the guts to tell Bill Gates?’
According to reports, a survey of 90,000 young Nigerians which was done in January 2016 discovered that 45% of college graduates didn’t have jobs with key reason on lack of professional skills such as: critical thinking, entrepreneurship, and decision-making.

Slatecube runs a three-tiered program. Users first complete a course in their chosen discipline (most are free). The classes range from corporate finance to anger management. Next, the startup assigns them virtual internships, allowing them to work remotely for companies including IT business Cisco and accounting firm Grant Thornton. Should the virtual internship go well, companies can hire the Slatecube graduates for full-time work.
The platform has an 80 percent employment rate for users, and Slatecube says businesses saved more than $100,000 in 2015 by recruiting skilled labor from its platform.
Interns using Slatecube say it helps align employers’ unrealistic expectations with the reality of the Nigerian labor market. “There are a million and one jobs in Nigeria, but employers are looking for people with experience
According to him, negotiations with several household names like Google and Microsoft to work with Slatecube are in order. And he also plan to branch out to other African Countries like Kenya, Ghana and South Africa.

“If Slatecube is as successful as we hope, I will put it down to the patience and tenacity I developed from starting out in Lagos.”

“If you can do business in Lagos, You can do business anywhere in the world. The struggle is real here.”

Roy Hudgson expressed issues on communicating with the team

Roy Hodgson speaks out on his England managerial reign which ended with the excruciating defeat to Iceland this summer, declaring that at times his players simply didn’t understand his instructions in the way that he imagined.
The 69-year-old has not discussed England since he appeared at a press conference against his will in late June.
The analysis of Hodgson's reign was largely unforgiving as England's major-tournament woes continued, but the well-travelled boss believes he had developed a system to overcome the issue of his squad not understanding his instructions.
But Hodgson, reflecting on four-year tenure in the Uefa coaching magazine The Technician, suggests that he ‘overestimated’ how much his players grasped his instructions and would ask them to recite them back to him, to ensure that they had.
One of the things I’ve learned in the last two years was overestimating players’ understanding of exactly what you want,” Hodgson said. “You have to make certain that they themselves take ownership of the situation.
In the last couple of years with England, we filmed the training sessions, we filmed the games in wide angle, and we started having meetings in smaller groups. The goalkeepers and the defenders. The midfield players and the attackers. Sometimes defenders and midfield players. Sometimes midfield players and attackers. We went through things but we got them to tell us back what we had been telling them.
There actually seemed to be uncertainty from the manager himself, not least when he made six changes for the Euro 2016 group stage match against Slovakia, resting Wayne Rooney and Dele Alli when England needed to win to qualify as leaders.
But Hodgson focuses on the need for players to take ownership of the messages their coaches are trying to deliver.

We will work on it in training but then I want the player in the unit meeting, when he sees fit, to say: ‘I should have gone out there; I should have gone quicker there.’ Or ‘I’ve gone too fast. I should have slowed down there. I’ve gone so quickly. That the guy’s gone past me before I can hold him up with the ball.’ That type of thing. We got the players to take ownership.”
Hodgson also tells fellow coaches in the publication that the written press are “dangerous” and an entity against which you “cannot win.”

He also states the importance of not rushing to comment in the aftermath of a match and making observations you later regret.

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