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Scorpion Venom used in The Treatment of Cancer Cells



           In the development of new drugs taking something from nature and modifying it has been successful tactic employed by medicinal chemists for years. Now with the use of venom, researchers are turning once- discarded drug candidates into usable drugs.

            Venom is a form of toxin secreted by some animals (e.g. scorpion, bee, snake e.tc) for the purpose of defending or causing harm to another. Off course we all know that venom can harm and kill human. However in low doses, venom will not affect normal cells while it may affect cancer cells, since cancer cells are most sensitive to e.g. modulation of various channels much needed for the very fast cellular division. Once such substance with anti-cancer potential is the cardiac glycoside Bufalin extracted from toad skin which is inhibiting a relevant ion channel for cancer cells i.e. the sodium- potassium exchange channel.

       Scorpion venom has been gaining interest as a source of new drugs, it contains a mixture of biological chemicals called peptides. Some of which are known to trigger cell death by forming proes in biological membranes.. cell death can be useful if we are able to target say tumor cells to auto-destruct.

         Investigation carried out by specialist of the Faculty of chemistry at the university of Colima (UCOL), who have identified peptides(amino acids molecules) that destroy cancer cells in vitro.

 This toxins can have very potent effects. For instance one particular small peptide known as TsAP-1, isolated from the Brazillian yellow scorpion (Tityus serrulatus) has both anti-microbial and anti cancerproperties.
            
      Laura Leticia ValdezVelazquez, Head of research, said that when the toxin, derived from scorpion venom, invades channels in the cells with this disease it produces cellular damage until killing them.
    “Centruroides tecomanus species is one of the most poisonous scorpion found in colima and we have identified a highly selective group of peptides, which indicates that they could specifically bind to cancer cells and cause their deaths” she indicates.”
        Diluted venom from blue scorpions from cuba, has been used to fight cancer for long time now by tens of thousands of patients. Though still in research phase, many patients report that tumors have disappeared upon taking the venom.

      

Mechanism of action


Kills cancer cells by ion modulation

A major anticancer action of scorpion venom is based on Chlorotoxin (CTX). This peptide found in the venom blocks small-conductance chloride channels that are highly relevant in some cancers for migration and invasion of healthy cells. It has been shown that chlorotoxin has the ability to interact with chloride channels in membrane protein in e.g glioma cells preventing trans-membrane chlorides fluxes .

Inhibits Metastasis:

Chlorotoxin can also bind to MMP-2 (Matrix metalloproteinase), a surface protein over-expressed in highly invasive tumours. the MMP proteins are involves in the breakdown of extracellular matrix in normal physiological processes such as embryonic development, reproduction and tissue remodelling, as well as in disease processes such as arthritis and metastasis.

Although the research is at a primary stage, this indicates the use of venom from scorpions used against cancer. Experts have been observing in Labortory animals that the presence of such toxins releases dopamine, and often effective drugs have been discovered but not commerialised due to delivery of the drugs.

Reference:


Chlorotoxin: a helpful natural scorpion peptide to diagnose glioma and fight tumour invasion

Chlorotoxin is a small 36 amino- acid peptide identified from the venom of the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus, Initially, Chlorotoxin was used as pharmacological tool to characterize chloride channels.

Basic Ideas About Your Sleeping Position


SLEEPING POSITIONS

The moment you lie on your beds, we fix on a preferred sleeping position we aren’t most times aware of it but putting thought into it we change our “usual position”. For something so simple (even babies do easily), sleep isn’t such an easy thing. Both too little and too much dozing has been linked to a host of Health problems, From Obesity and heart disease to dementia and diabetes. And sleeping position can play a role in snoring, aches and pain, heartburn and even wrinkles! It might be time to switch things up at Bedtime.

There are 3 curves on the body that you should pay attention to

Your lower back, Middle back and near your Neck. Try to maintain these natural curves when you sleep

“Eighty Percent of the population will have back problems at some point in [their] lives often times caused or aggravated by the way they sleep,” Dr Hooman Melamed, an orthopaedic spine surgeon at the DISC Sports & Spine centre

Here is a list of sleep Position you can be aware of and there health consequence:



Side Sleeping:

This position is the most common and for some good reason, it can have a whole lot of health Benefits. If you snore or have breathing problems, sleeping on your side is the best choice for opening your airways so you can breathe better at night, says Sleep specialist W. Christopher Winter, MD Medical doctor of the Martha Jefferson Hospital Sleep Medicine Centre. Pregnant women in particular should consider sleeping in this position on their left side to ease flow of blood to the mom’s heart.

But sleeping on your side have its Disadvantages “ever slept on your side and woken up with a numb arm?” occurring as a result the weight you’re putting on your arm, or another numb body part, is putting intense pressure on your blood vessels. There can be so much crushing pressure that you lose blood circulation and you wake up to roll over, explains clinical psychologist Micheal Breus, PhD, a board-certified sleep specialist and author of GOOD NIGHT: The sleep Doctor’s 4-week Program to better sleep and Better Health. Another if you have frequent indigestion at night changing your sleep position is advisable.


Back Sleeping/The soldier:

Sleeping on your back makes your weight evenly distributed across your skeletal frame. No turning and tossing due to poor blood flow. Sleeping on your back with your knees supported upward with pillows could take some pressure off your spine and relieve pain. Sleeping with your face out in the air is a winner in reducing wrinkles. People with Heart Failure, certain respiratory Diseases, Glaucoma or Gastro-esophageal reflux Disease(GERD) may benefit from taking this position.

Stomach sleeping/freefall position:


Sleeping in this position can cause the tongue to fall inwards to block the breathing tube, they are prone to snoring and this position isn’t advisable for people with apnoea, using pillow as support isn’t preferable especially if there is neck pain.
Stomach sleeping/free fall position:

This form of sleeping if you’re a back sleeper who snores and you can ‘t switch to sleeping on your side, laying on your stomach eases breathing.

But this sleeping position isn’t advisable because it doesn’t support the natural curve of your spine, leading to your spine over arching placing pressure on the joints and muscles that leads to pain numbness and tingling.

REGARDLESS OF THE HEALTH BENEFITS!


If you sleep on your side back and stomach and you are comfortable in that position, experimenting on other positions won’t do any harm, or when you feel uncomfortable in your usual position. Unless a Doctor specifically recommends switching, it’s probably best to keep doing what feels right

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